Workshop of introduction to archeology in Can Monroig, Inca, Mallorca (2015)

Workshop of introduction to archeology in Can Monroig, Inca, Mallorca.

The archaeologist Jorge Argüello Menéndez will conduct a practical and theoretic course the days 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10th of July 2015 at Can Monroig.

The study will focus on the kiln and well situated at the entrance of the house located in Inca.

Excavation and probe of 1.50 x 1.50 metres.

Beginning of excavation of the statigraphic levels of a well.

Themes to be treated:

1-    Spatial organization of the site.

2-    Methodology of the excavation.

The statigraphic units. Statigraphic relations. Identification and excavation of the statigraphic unit.

3-    Registry proceedings and excavation of the stratum.

The file of the statigraphic unit. The photographic registry of the site. The drawing of the site. Archaeologic excavation techniques. Gathering of materials. Gathering of samples 54.

 4-    Treatment of the archaeologic material.

Cleaning. Acronyms. Joining of fragments.

 Location: Can Monroig.

 C/ Can Valella nº22

Inca, Mallorca, Spain.

 See on Google Maps

 Telephone number: 649 186 494 (Robert López Hinton)

Dates: 6 to 10 of July 2015

Time: from 15:00 to 20:00 hours.

Limit number of places: 6

Reservations: send an email to Esta dirección de correo electrónico está siendo protegida contra los robots de spam. Necesita tener JavaScript habilitado para poder verlo. indicating the reasons why would you like to participate in this course.

The selected candidates should advance 50% of the cost before the start of it, and the rest on 6th July, on starting.

El arqueólogo Jorge Argüello Menéndez impartirá un curso teórico práctico los días 6, 7, 8, 9 y 10 de julio del 2015 en Can Monroig.
El estudio se centrará en el horno y el pozo que se encuentran en la entrada de la casa situada en Inca.

Excavación de un sondeo de 1,50 x 1,50 metros.
Inicio de la excavación de los niveles estratigráficos de un pozo.

Temas a tratar:

1.- Organización espacial del yacimiento.

2.- Metodología de excavación.
Las unidades estratigráficas. Relaciones estratigráficas. Identificación y excavación de Unidad Estratigráfica

3.- Procedimientos de registro y excavación de un estrato.
La ficha de Unidad Estratigráfica. El Registro fotográfico de campo. El dibujo de campo.
Técnicas de excavación arqueológica. Recogida de materiales. Recogida de muestras 54.

4.- Tratamiento del material arqueológico.
Limpieza. Siglado. Pegado de fragmentos.

Lugar: Can Monroig
C/Can Valella nº22
Inca ,Mallorca, España.
ver en Google maps
teléfono 649186494

Fechas: 6 a 10 de julio 2015

Horario: 15h a 20h

Limite de plazas: 6

Reservas: enviar un mail a Esta dirección de correo electrónico está siendo protegida contra los robots de spam. Necesita tener JavaScript habilitado para poder verlo. indicando los motivos por los que te gustaría participar en este curso.

El horno de Can Monroig

arco horno

Durante la restauración de Can Monroig que se inició  en el año 2002,  apareció en una de las salas y casi a ras de suelo un arco de piedra.
Tardaríamos unos meses en levantar las losas de piedra y así desenterrar lo que resultó ser un pequeño horno.

horno de can monroig

En el recinto del horno había dos pozos, uno de ellos estaba lleno de tierra, el otro estaba tapado por una losa de piedra y al tratarse de un pozo de filtración se encontraba lleno de agua.

En el año 2014, a través del arqueólogo Jorge Argüello, solicitamos permiso a la dirección de patrimonio  para realizar unas catas arqueológicas en la zona de el horno.
El próximo día seis de julio se inicia el estudio arqueológico en Can Monroig centrado en el horno y uno de los pozos que hay en este recinto.

Esto es posible gracias a la enorme generosidad e interés de Jorge, ya que no recibimos ninguna ayuda para financiar estos trabajos;
por lo cual, toma forma de curso de iniciación a la arqueología, con una aportación económica por parte de los alumnos y con un máximo de seis participantes debido a la limitación del espacio.

Esperamos que este curso que se inicia el 6 de julio pueda aportarnos nuevos datos sobre los orígenes de Can Monroig.

horno en Can Monroig

Artículos relacionados:
Can Monroig i el call de Inca
La casa
¿Mikveh en el barrio judío de Inca?
Can Monroig and the jewish quarter of Inca
Ablagerungen der geschicht /Mallorca zeitung


Can Monroig and the jewish quarter of Inca

The house of Can Monroig

Can Monroig is situated at 22 carrer de Can Valella and has also been known as Can Móra. This building is located in the Inca’s Jewish neighbourhood which was formed within Sant Francesc, Virtud, Can Valella, Pare Cerdà, Call streets.

The current two-floor house is dated from the 16th century and it has a smooth façade decorated with little stones, similar to the façade of Can Siquier. The openings are formed by multiple windows, except for the main entrance which is finished with a round arch made of stone similar to the bottom of the façade. As well as in the mentioned Can Siquier, inside Can Monroig there are some remains of Baroque style as handle-shaped arches.

This house was closed for many years and with the passage of time it had deteriorated. Some years ago it was bought and its new owners restored it which came to light many architectural elements which highlighted the medieval origin of the house. The gothic elements of the building that can be seen today are formed by some pointed and rounded arches, and an entrance and a window both right angled. Thus, the inside of the house consists of two bays. In the first bay, there are three rooms which are perpendicular to the front separated by arches. It is in the space that can be considered the entrance of the house, where there is a Baroque handle-shaped arch and another round and white arch that leads to a room where there is a pointed arc, currently it is bricked-in.

The first bay is separated by a second wall which opens an access formed by an angle right entrance between two bays, and on its right, a window formed with a round arch can possibly be dated from the Medieval Age because of the resemblance to others entrances and windows from other Gothic buildings of the same time (Palau de l’Almudaina in Palma, Palau dels Reis de Mallorca in Sineu, Torre dels Enagistes in Manacor, etc.). It is also possible that in previous time these windows would have been an entrance.

In the second bay on the left wall there is a stone entrance with a right angle and a wooden lintel, then a square window and another entrance, now finished with a right angle, but originally it was finished with a rounded arch, like the one situated in the separating wall between the two bays. For its shape and situation, we think they are also medieval remains.

At the back of the house, is found a courtyard, ant to the left there is a space opened by a handle-shaped baroque arch, which in its interior we can observe the remains of another older handle-shaped arch. There is a previous one, much older, one can still be seen in its place which is made of stone and it was pointed. In addition, to the right, you can still see the start of what must have been the beginning of the nerve crossing of the remains vault. On the opposite of the arch, the remains of the pointed is still visible and with the width of the space, one might think that it was a space covered by two tranches of vault.

Once discovered, these architectural remains were taking dated back to the Jewish area in the 14th century, where the house is located. It is easy to think that we talk of Gothic that probably date from this century or even from the 13th.

In addition to these findings, the restorations of the house has replaced all the stone floors and made a number of interesting findings. Also, note to the right of the entrance, is found an old oven placed below the level of the street, as well as a whole series of stone vats and tanks scattered throughout the house connected through clay pipes. In addition, we know that the house also has a wine cellar and a cistern is still conserved.

In the courtyard there are two tanks, one larger than the other. Inside the smaller, some steps were discovered by which it was possible to access into it and inside there is a bronze tap with anthropomorphic decoration (two eyes and a nose).

Unlike the various arches formed by the architectural remains, in the case of the findings of the oven, the various tanks, cisterns and wells, we are unable to date them, because until now they have not been studied by archaeologists and, therefore, we have no convincing data that allows us to know what its use was or when were built. Also, keep in mind that Can Monroig is a house that has undergone many changes and additions over the centuries, which makes further study necessary.

But, however repeat some dates are important enough which, in the future, and after a good archaeological study, could help to decipher these different findings.

So one again, we note that the house is located in the area which, in the 14th century, was the Jewish area of Inca. Therefore, we believe it necessary to note some bibliographic data on Jews in Mallorca, Inca and on the erection of our Jewish area, without forgetting Palma’s Jewish area too.

Inca’s Jewish Quarter

We must seek the origins of the Jewish presence in Mallorca in the fifth century, both in Mallorca and Menorca, as well documented by a letter from Bishop Sever in 417 BC. Also, thanks to several sources, we know that during the Islamic domination of the island (902-1229) there was also a significant Jewish community. So, when Jaume I conquered Mallorca in 1229, he not only found a significant Jewish settlement in Palma, but also in other parts of the island including Inca, Petra, Montuïri, Felanitx, Sineu, Alcúdia, Sóller and Pollença.

The Jewish community of Inca was already in 1232, when Jaume I granted remuneration to the Jews of Inca, Almudaina de Gomara (Palma), Petra and Montuïri. A 1240 document confirms the presence of Jews in Inca. Moreover, the Conqueror gave his support to Jews of Mallorca granting them the privilege of Royal protection confirmed by him in 1247.

We have more information about the Jewish community of Inca comprising the fourteenth century. This data is documented in the Morabatí books of 1329 and 1336. We also know that in recent years the Inca Jews still didn’t have an area to live together, but they lived scattered over different parts of the town. Instead, they had a good organisation under a Jewish institution known as Aljama, which was approved by the king and had counsellors, secretaries and attorneys, as well as enjoying some public independence.

Due to the significant and constant clashes in 1346 between some members of the Jewish and Christian communities King Peter IV of Aragon gave the order to raise a Jewish quarter within the town of Inca. Despite the royal decree, and because of the large decline in the Jewish population after the plague of 1348, it was not until 1372 when a Jewish quarter was definitively settled in Inca. Although in 1353 the Judges had asked the governor where the Jewish quarter would be placed and it was assigned in the district of Sant Bartomeu, specifically in the carrer de Martí Metge, but the Jews did not like the site because of the poor condition of the houses, many of them in a state of ruin, and appealed to the king to grant them another place to settle. Finally, King Peter IV of Aragon, as we have seen, in 1372 gave them the new and current, place located in carrer d’en Pascolet found in the district of Sant Francesc.

The assault on the Jewish quarter in 1391

The Jewish quarter of Inca, similar to the case of Palma, was surrounded by a wall and closed by two gates, one of them was in the carrer de Sant Francesc. It is confirmed in the documents of 1372 where the Jews asked for a gate to be built on the carrer de Sant Francesc. However that, Jews were told their own district be as closed to the rest of the town was enough to stop the fighting and assaults on Jewish houses by Christians and in 1391 they assaulted the Jewish quarters of Palma and Inca. Christians brought out by various disturbances which perpetrated numerous acts of looting and destruction, the killing of a large number of Jews (regarding Inca; the documents speak of an almost total extinction) and the set into fire to houses and shops within the Jewish quarter, leaving the entire neighbourhood devastated.

Retouring to Can Monroig...

 As a conclusion, and having the house of Can Monroig located where the Jewish quarter once was, one last observation leads to the pointed arch that places us at the entrance of the house. In this arch, at the top, it is still possible to see the remains of burnet stone and a photograph of the same arch made just before cleaning, shows us the remains of a fire had. In the second bay of the house, even after a post that gives access to the left, there is another entrance showing the wooden lintel completely burnet.

The burnet remains must have been the result of a major fire suffered by the house and the fact that they are in Gothic architectural remains leads us to think that they could be directly related to the assault on the Jewish quarter in 1391 (as which is documented in the Història de Mallorca, by Pere Xamena) and during the riots, houses and shops were burnet. Also noteworthy, is the first volume of the Història de Mallorca published by Editorial Moll, which states that “the lower classes of the city joined with the peasants storming the Jewish quarter, burning houses and killing 300 Jews {...} the same attack suffered by Jewish quarter of Inca.

Text: Guillem Reus Planells

More information:
Jewish quarter of Inca (blog)
Jewish quarter of Inca (Google plus)
Can Monroig and the jewish quarter of Inca (pinterest)
Mallorca zeitung about

Un Mikveh en Jerusalem

Ante la posibilidad de que los restos de antiguas construcciones hallados en Can Monroig, Mallorca, sean los de una zona comunitaria del antiguo barrio judío de Inca o "Call", donde la comunidad judía celebraba sus ritos de purificación, compartimos este vídeo sobre un antiguo Mikveh hallado en Jerusalem. En él se explican las características y requisitos que debe cumplir el mikveh para ser utilizado en los baños rituales judíos.

According to Benyamin Storchan, director of the excavation on behalf of the Israel Antiquities Authority, 
"Numerous ritual baths have been excavated in Jerusalem in recent years, but the water supply system
that we exposed in this excavationis unique and unusual.

The ritual bath consists of an underground chamber entered by way of steps. The mikva received the
rainwater from three collecting basins (otzar) that were hewn on the roof of the bath, and the pure water
was conveyed inside the chamber through channels. The ritual baths known until now usually consist of a
closed cavity that was supplied with rainwater conveyed from a small rock-cut pool located nearby.
The complex that was exposed at this time is a more sophisticated and intricate system.

The bath was apparently associated with a settlement that was situated there in the Second Temple period.
Presumably, due to the rainfall regime and arid conditions of the region, the inhabitants sought special
techniques that would make it possible to store every drop of water.

It is interesting to note that the bath conforms to all of the laws of kashrut, like collecting the water in
it naturally without human contact, and ensuring that the water does not seep into the earth which is why
the bath was treated with a special kind of plaster".
The ritual bath, which is located in a picturesque valley where there are ancient agricultural installations, 
was uncovered a short distance from the houses in the Kiryat Menachem quarter.
According to the Jerusalem district archaeologist, Amit Re'em, "The neighborhood community has expressed
great interest in the conservation of the mikva. The Israel Antiquities Authority and the Moriah Company are
working to make this delightful treasure a site for the benefit of the residents and visitors".
After the ritual bath went out of use, the place served as a quarry and the channels filled up with earth. 
During the twentieth century the immersion chamber was cleaned, a round opening was breached in its
ceiling and it was used as a cistern. 
Mikvah, ritual bath
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